1. True Random Number Generator
- As the global market for the Internet of Things (IoT) is growing by huge amounts, data privacy has become the subject of intensive research. A true random number generator (TRNG) is hardware security that generates random bits from its intrinsically stochastic physical process. Recently, the memristor's nonuniformity, mainly due to the stochastic physical phenomena during the switching, has been employed as random sources for cryptographic applications, such as TRNGs and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). Since the volatile memristor does not require a RESET process, the research focus has shifted toward volatile-memristor-based TRNGs. A scalable and reliable way of realizing the TRNG using a Pt/HfO2/TiN electronic-switching-based memristor was proposed. The memristor with the electronic switching mechanism is preferable due to its low power consumption and excellent reliability. The novel TRNG circuit design exhibits several advantages, such as simplicity, scalability, and longevity. Another new type of TRNG using the stochastic threshold switching of a Cu0.1Te0.9/HfO2/Pt diffusive memristor was created. It was combined with a nonlinear feedback shift register (NFSR), which enhanced the bit generation rate with minimal power consumption. The memristor-based TRNG experimentally proved the feasibility of adopting the memristor in security applications for the IoT era. Furthermore, the capability of generating random bits can be applied to probabilistic computing explained in the next section.